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In a groundbreaking unanimous decision, the U.S. Supreme Court redefined an employer’s duty to accommodate religious beliefs and practices under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The case, Groff v. DeJoy, marked a departure from the long-standing “de minimis” test and introduced a new standard that requires employers to demonstrate substantially increased costs before denying a religious accommodation request. This blog post will provide a comprehensive summary of the case, the ruling, and the potential implications for businesses.

The Case: Groff v. DeJoy

Gerald Groff, an Evangelical Christian employed by the United States Postal Service (USPS), filed a lawsuit alleging that USPS violated Title VII by failing to accommodate his religious observance of the Sunday Sabbath. Initially, USPS did not require Groff to work on Sundays. However, after entering into an agreement with Amazon involving Sunday deliveries, USPS began to assign Sunday shifts to Groff.

When Groff requested a transfer to a different facility to avoid working on Sundays, he was granted the transfer. Unfortunately, the new facility also implemented Sunday deliveries, which conflicted with Groff’s religious beliefs. As a result, other employees were forced to cover Groff’s Sunday shifts, leading to disciplinary action against Groff and ultimately to his resignation.

The lower courts applied the traditional “de minimis” test, which stated that an accommodation would be an undue hardship if it imposed more than a minimal cost on the employer. They concluded that Groff’s accommodation request constituted an undue hardship due to the impact on other employees and the negative effect on workplace morale.

The Supreme Court Ruling

The Supreme Court recently issued ground-breaking guidelines for assessing requests for religious accommodation, effectively reversing earlier rulings by lower courts in a historic decision. The Court’s landmark decision established that employers wishing to refuse such accommodations must show that the cost of doing so will greatly and substantially raise the costs associated with their particular business operations.

The Court’s decision made it clearer yet by explicitly declaring that it is no longer sufficient to claim that forcing other employees to work overtime would put them through an unreasonable hardship. To lessen the pressure on their staff, businesses are now required to consider alternatives, such as voluntary shift swapping. It underlined that while evaluating the prospective rise in expenses, a thorough review of all pertinent aspects, including the employer’s type of business, size, and operational costs, must be done.

By imposing these new criteria, the Supreme Court has effectively raised the bar for employers when it comes to evaluating religious accommodation requests.

Implications for Businesses

The Supreme Court’s ruling in Groff v. DeJoy has significant implications for businesses when considering employee requests for religious accommodations. Some key points to consider include:

Departure From the de minimis” Standard

For many years, the “de minimis” threshold gave employers a relatively low bar to reject requests for religious accommodations. Employers could refuse an accommodation under this condition if it caused a quantifiable expense or inconvenience to their company operations. This frequently resulted in a limited understanding of what constituted an unreasonable burden, potentially jeopardizing the employees’ right to practice their religion.

However, the Supreme Court’s ruling in Groff v. DeJoy signaled a shift away from this lenient standard. The Court stated that the “de minimis” standard was never truly the standard and that courts across the country had misconstrued the Hardison decision for over four decades.

The Court clarified that an employer seeking to deny a religious accommodation must demonstrate that the burden of granting the accommodation would result in increased costs relative to the conduct of its particular business. This new standard imposes a more rigorous burden on employers and requires them to show that the costs of accommodating an employee’s religious beliefs and practices would be excessive or unjustifiable.

Heightened Burden on Employers

Employers must carefully assess how the accommodation will specifically affect their company’s operations. This evaluation will be heavily influenced by elements including the employer’s business size, nature, and operational expenses. Each situation must be evaluated on its own merits, taking into account the particulars of the situation as well as the potential practical effects of the sought accommodation.

This heightened burden places a responsibility on employers to engage in a diligent and thorough review process. It is crucial for employers to have well-documented policies and procedures in place to address religious accommodation requests. Training human resources personnel, managers, and supervisors on the updated standard is essential to ensure consistent and informed decision-making.

Moreover, the Court emphasized that employers cannot simply rely on the argument that forcing other employees to work overtime constitutes an undue hardship.

Training and Awareness

Comprehensive training programs should be developed to educate personnel on the nuances of the Groff v. DeJoy ruling. This training should cover the key elements of the decision, including the departure from the “de minimis” standard and the introduction of the increased costs requirement. By providing a clear understanding of the ruling, employers can equip their personnel with the knowledge necessary to navigate religious accommodation requests effectively.

During training sessions, HR professionals and managers should be educated on the legal obligations and requirements under Title VII. They should understand the importance of religious diversity and the need to accommodate employees’ sincerely held religious beliefs and practices. Training should emphasize the significance of fostering an inclusive work environment that respects religious freedom and promotes understanding among employees of different faith traditions.

Focus on Business Impact

The ruling underscores the need for employers to prioritize evaluating the direct impact on their business operations when considering religious accommodation requests. While it is important to foster a respectful and inclusive work environment, the Supreme Court’s decision in Groff v. DeJoy recognizes that the accommodation evaluation process should primarily focus on the potential impact on the employer’s ability to conduct its business effectively.

When assessing accommodation requests, employers should carefully consider the practical implications of granting the accommodation. This evaluation should extend beyond merely considering the preferences or sensitivities of coworkers. Instead, the focus should be on whether accommodating the employee’s religious beliefs would cause significant disruptions or impose substantial costs on the business.

Exploring Alternative Accommodations

The Court’s recognition of the importance of exploring alternative accommodations stems from the understanding that there may be options beyond outright denial that can meet both the employee’s religious needs and the employer’s operational requirements. Employers should actively engage in discussions with employees to identify potential solutions and ensure a fair and inclusive approach to religious accommodation.

One alternative accommodation option that the Court specifically mentions is voluntary shift swapping. This approach involves allowing employees to voluntarily exchange shifts, enabling individuals with religious restrictions to find suitable arrangements without burdening coworkers or the organization. By considering such alternatives, employers can foster a sense of collaboration and mutual support among employees.

Engaging in meaningful discussions with employees seeking religious accommodations is key to understanding their specific needs and exploring potential solutions. These discussions should be conducted with empathy and respect, as the goal is to find a balance between religious beliefs and operational requirements. By actively listening to employees and involving them in the decision-making process, employers can foster a sense of inclusion and promote positive employee relations.

Legal Uncertainties

The Supreme Court’s ruling in Groff v. DeJoy marks a significant shift in the evaluation of religious accommodations. It clarifies that employers must demonstrate increased costs to establish undue hardship, departing from the previous “de minimis” standard. While this new standard provides employers with more specific guidance, its precise application and interpretation in different contexts may lead to legal uncertainties.

Lower courts will play a crucial role in applying the modified standard to specific cases. As cases begin to make their way through the legal system, the rulings and interpretations of these lower courts will provide further insights into how the increased cost standard will be applied in different circumstances. This will help establish a more comprehensive understanding of its practical implications for businesses.

To navigate these legal uncertainties, businesses must stay updated on subsequent legal developments. They should closely monitor how lower courts interpret and apply the increased costs standard. This includes staying informed about relevant case law and legal commentary that emerges in the wake of the Groff v. DeJoy ruling. Staying up to date with legal developments will help businesses adjust their policies, procedures, and practices accordingly.

Final Thoughts

The Supreme Court’s ruling in Groff v. DeJoy introduces a new standard for evaluating religious accommodation requests under Title VII. The decision shifts the focus from minimal cost to increased cost and requires employers to consider all relevant factors specific to their business. While the full impact of this ruling will be determined as lower courts begin to apply the modified standard, businesses must proactively adapt to the new requirements. By understanding the implications and taking appropriate steps to train personnel and assess accommodation requests, businesses can ensure compliance with the updated standard while respecting employees’ religious rights. Businesses need to engage in open and meaningful discussions with employees to explore reasonable accommodations and find solutions that balance religious beliefs and operational needs.


Justia U.S. Supreme Court. Trans World Airlines, Inc. v. Hardison, 432 U.S. 63 (1977).

Supreme Court Of The United States. 22-174 Groff v. DeJoy (06/29/2023).

U.S. Department of Labor. Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended.

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